Saturday, January 14, 2017

Saving Up for Icy Days, The Geese Take Nothing for Granted


Typical posture of wintering Canada geese. But what might appear "laziness" is actually calculated to save energy and needed fat reserves for the long winter ahead.
They haven't had a lot of ice to deal with so far in NYC, but the geese and ducks are well suited and prepared for it.
 
The winter of 2016 is a tough one to figure out so far.

We have had a couple of "Arctic blasts" in New York City but they have been followed by quick warm-ups with temperatures rising into the 60's.

Any snow that has fallen or watercourses iced over have rapidly thawed, thus making this an easy winter so far for the birds.

Canada geese wintering at the Reservoir Central Park have taken advantage of a relatively mild January by being more active than they usually are in winter. It's not unusual these days to see the geese flying out of the Reservoir in the early mornings or evenings to presumably seek grass grazing somewhere.

Typically, geese "hunker down" during bitter weather to presumably slow their metabolisms and save energy and fat reserves. This enables them to sometimes go many days without food and still survive regardless of what mother nature has in store. While it is a little unusual to see geese "sleeping" with their heads tucked on their backs during the spring, summer and fall, such posture is typical in winter.

It is during the three other seasons (in addition to mating and raising young), geese concentrate on feeding and building strength to see them through the winters. While they may appear "lazy" during the winter, the geese are actually being calculating and smart. No point after all, in wasting precious energy and burning calorie and fat reserves one might need later during a particularly long or challenging winter.

This might help explain why geese are better able to survive unusually brutal winters than their smaller cousins, the ducks.

From personal observations of mallards over the years, their smaller size and apparently faster metabolisms don't allow them to go many days without food. Put simply, the ducks have to eat virtually every day of the year if they are to survive. But geese can "zone out" for stretches of a time and not seem to suffer devastating effects.

This was particularly notable during the harsh winters of 2013 and 2014 when thousands of water birds, particularly ducks, perished in the North East due to starvation. With watercourses frozen over and snow on the ground for many weeks -- particularly during the later stages of winter -- the birds had no access to food and whatever fat reserves had long been used up.

It is far too early now to evaluate the winter of 2016.

While seemingly "easy," so far, I am reminded that the challenges of 2013 and 2014 did not truly settle in until mid February and even early March.

So with cautionary note, we say, "so far so good."

But for sure, the geese are not just sitting back on laurels and counting lucky stars.  

Rather, when the moon rises and the stars come out, the geese take to the skies and lawns to bank those extra calories -- just in case.

One never knows what February and March have in store and Canada geese are never ones to take anything for granted.

Saving up for icy days, might well be their credo. -- PCA




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Monday, January 2, 2017

"Assimilate, but Never Forget" -- Lessons Learned by Canada Geese


As New Year's fireworks boom in Central Park, the geese gather tightly together and wait out the challenge.
All is quiet (again) on New Year's Day.
"We made it through another year, guys!"
To catch a little shut-eye on a lazy winter's day.
 
Large snowfalls, frozen watercourses and frigid weather in many parts of the country (including upstate New York) have seemingly sent many geese and other water birds to seek refuge in New York City -- even in larger numbers than we are normally accustomed to seeing this time of year.

So far, New York City has seen little snow and experienced just a brief bout with an, "Arctic cold blast." But temperatures over the past ten days have been relatively mild. So mild that on one 60 degree day last week, all the iced-over ponds and lakes of Central Park suddenly melted.

Fair weather and open waters have served as attractant to geese and other water birds not wanting to stray too far from their home bases, but still seeking temporary wintering habitat.

The Central Park Reservoir has long been especially appealing to these birds during the hearts of most winters.

For one matter, the apparently deep Reservoir rarely freezes entirely over (though it nearly did during the particularly harsh winters of 2013 and 2014, resulting in the deaths of many water birds due to starvation). Most winters, the Reservoir only partially freezes, thereby allowing the birds to survive fairly easily.

Another amenity the Reservoir offers is relative safety from predators and hunters -- something especially important to Canada geese who are most noted for their extreme organization, vigilance and protection towards family members. (One of the many reasons for their high survival rates.)

And finally, the Reservoir is close to grazing areas in the park and elsewhere where the geese can fly in and out to munch on whatever grass remains from summer and fall.

All in all, it's a generally good set-up for geese and ducks most winters -- though as noted, there can sometimes be nasty surprises.

What intrigues me especially about the migratory geese and ducks who spend winters in New York City is how they are able to adapt to the noises, crowds, lights and general chaos of New York City as compared to the quiet, rural environments they come from.

One would think New York City to be a shock to wild birds and indeed it is for most species of our feathered friends.

But the highly resourceful and intelligent Canada geese and their mallard pals seem immune to the stresses that would send most wild birds packing -- up to and including fireworks.

As part of Central Park's  New Year's, "Midnight Run" for joggers, it routinely sets off fireworks every year as the clock ushers in the New Year.

The exploding lights and loud booms of fireworks are frightening to the park wildlife, especially as the "festivities" are not part of daily park routine.

Witnessing the fireworks displays for the past several years, the geese quickly gather themselves together and swim their way to the far north east reaches of the Reservoir -- the farthest point from fireworks without actually leaving the water. There is a continued and somewhat frantic dialogue occurring among the geese as represented by loud and lingering honk exchanges from one flock to another.

But unlike past years, none of the geese actually flew out from the Reservoir this year.

Rather, they elected to "wait out the challenge" which they apparently figured or more accurately remembered, would soon end. Presumably, the older and more experienced geese were able to calm and assure the younger and more frightened ones to stay.  

It seems that even fireworks, the geese and ducks eventually adapt to. 

Yesterday, I returned to the Reservoir shortly before sunset and was struck by the number of geese and ducks lazily gliding along the water. There were easily more than 200 geese and almost as many mallards, diving ducks and coots; the stresses of the preceding night apparently long forgotten.  

That is until next New Year's Eve.

Lessons learned by Canada geese may be easily assimilated, but they are never forgotten.

Call me biased, but I truly believe Canada geese to be among the least appreciated, but most intelligent, adaptable and resourceful life forces on planet earth -- and that would include human beings who don't always remember and learn from our mistakes. -- PCA




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Monday, December 26, 2016

Christmas Wish of a Friend -- "Please Look After My Ducks"


Dennis (a domestic, Black Swedish duck) and Davy (a Khaki Campbell duck) look out over a frozen Boat Lake in Central Park.
Dennis, Davy and their two mallard pals. The four ducks (two wild and two domestic) enjoy an unusual relationship and are the concern of a cherished friend temporarily off her feet.
 
It wasn't the happiest Christmas in a year that has been characterized by personal and political losses.

After suddenly losing a dear friend several months ago to a recurrence of breast cancer, another cherished friend has been hospitalized on and off over the past two months for what was at first, a deep vein thrombosis and is now cancer of the reproductive system.

My friend, Liliana, has long been a valued ally in the quest to look out for the wildlife of our Central Park and has even assisted me in several rescues of injured or ailing ducks and geese.

During the brutal, punishing winter of 2014 in which thousands of water birds perished due to starvation on ice-covered lakes and ponds, Liliana often assisted me in helping feed the hundreds of desperate geese and ducks wintering at the Central Park Reservoir. We still lost some birds, but thankfully most survived.

A lovely story about Liliana and her efforts to support NYC wildlife was published two years ago in a respected travel blog.

But for more than two months now, Liliana hasn't been able to get anywhere near Central Park.

She is barely able to walk. And last week, she had to undergo a hysterectomy.

Liliana is due to begin chemotherapy and radiation shortly.

News of Liliana's illness has been painful for me to learn, not only because we share a love for animals and wildlife, but because she has always been so kind and giving towards me. Liliana has always been a woman of very meager means. But she would spend her last dime or day of life to help an animal or human in need. That is just who she is.

Liliana isn't always easy to understand due to her thick Romanian accent. But we could still share the laughs, tasteless jokes and even laugh at ourselves.

But, the jokes are harder to crack and come by now.

I try to make light of the situation by telling Liliana that she needs to "get up and atom soon!" because the geese and ducks will be expecting her to show up with bagels, cracked corn and whole wheat bread come January and February. But the jokes fall flat.

We both know Liliana's not going to be "up and atom" anytime soon.

Memories of my own mother's (uterine) cancer and hysterectomy in 1967 and its long, difficult recovery make me pause in terms of fanciful illusions about my friend. My mother was fortunate in that she did fully recover eventually. But she never had to undergo chemotherapy or radiation as Liliana will.

Seeming to sense traumatic memories of seeing my mother all battered up in a hospital and appearing like the loser in a prize fight, Liliana has been adamant in demand that I not visit her in the hospital.

"I have everything I need!" Liliana admonishes. "My brother, people from the church, bring me food and other things. I don't want you to come! What I would like is that, if possible, you look after my boy and his friend and let me know how they are doing. I am worried for them on the frozen lake."

Liliana's "boy and friend" are two male domestic (flightless) ducks who have been toughing it out on the Central Park Boat Lake for the past several years.

There were originally four ducks, but two have recently disappeared and likely perished over the past several months.

During the recent "arctic blast," all of Central Park lakes and ponds iced over, including the Boat Lake. (The Reservoir remains open water and that is where virtually all the geese and ducks are currently.)

But because Liliana's "boys" cannot fly, they are stuck on the Boat Lake for better or worse. (Ironically, there are two mallards hanging with them which is surprising considering the mallards can fly. Presumably, there is some kind of relationship among the four water birds.)

Recent visits to the Boat Lake have illuminated a kind of frozen tundra with just a small pool of open water not far from the Ladies Pavilion.   

There, Dennis and Davy (as I call them) and their two chummy mallard pals are making do by either resting at the edge of the ice or swimming in the water as circumstances dictate.

This is not the boys' first rodeo (i.e. winter on ice).

Having survived the particularly brutal winter of 2014, both ducks are extremely proficient in knowing how to deal with and navigate an iced-over lake.  

The challenge (as Liliana knows) is to ensure that the birds have sufficient food to get them through the lean times. Hopefully, I and a few other caring people can take on that responsibility as long as need be.

Temperatures have fortunately warmed over the past few days to above freezing. While such has served to widen the open pool of water, more than 95% of the lake remains frozen and likely will remain that way until March.

The two domestic ducks and their mallard pals so far look good and are dealing well with adversity and challenge.

But, it is a very long winter ahead.

I pray that both, my friend and the ducks she so worries over will come out on the other side of winter, in vibrancy and health. 

But so much remains to be seen in these tough times of unpredictability and loss.

We have to find way to ride out the darkness and storms and prevail to the other side -- when spring again looms over the horizon.   -- PCA 




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Saturday, December 24, 2016

Geese and Ducks Arrive Ahead of "Arctic Blast"


Arctic blast of past couple of weeks forced our northern birds to quicky move.
Exhausted and catching needed shut-eye after long journey.
Making friends with Northern Shovelers.
An American Coot.
Hail, hail, the gang's all here!
 
It was a wondrous sight just after sunset a few nights ago.

As I was leaving the Central Park Reservoir, I heard some faint honking. High in the sky above me, a skein of at least 20 geese flew overhead. 

The geese were at least 300 to 400 feet in the air -- the highest I had ever seen them flying over Central Park and certainly too high to get a decent photo, especially in the dark.

I thought at first the migratory geese were simply passing over the park with some far off destination in mind. But as they reached the center of the Reservoir, they began to circle  and then rapidly descended to land gracefully in the water like accomplished ballerinas. The geese had in fact, landed there many times before -- the Reservoir either being their temporary, wintering home or a temporary refuge when conditions are unusually harsh elsewhere.

Although general goose migrations passing through New York City were later this year than usual (likely due to an unusually warm summer and fall), the migratory geese who actually winter in New York City (and are the last to fly in) arrived a bit early this year. Most of the wintering Reservoir geese (and ducks) flew in over the past couple of weeks. Typically they are not expected until late December or even early January.

The geese' and ducks' early arrival was excellent predictor that weather was about to drastically turn frigid. An "Arctic Blast" has, in fact, enveloped much of the country over the past two weeks with much snow dumped in the north east and mid west and below zero temperatures occurring in some states. It is suspected that the unusually frigid weather in many parts of the country may have pushed some birds into New York City who do not normally winter here.  

In New York City, we have merely experienced a small taste of the winter ahead. A few inches of snow fell several days ago, but it was quickly melted by a temporary warm-up and rain.

Nevertheless, all of Central Park's lakes and ponds are currently iced over. Probably because it's deeper than other watercourses, the Reservoir remains open water thereby attracting hundreds of migratory waterfowl.

It is pleasing to note that the numbers of geese, mallards, diving ducks and even American Coots at the Reservoir now are comparable to numbers observed over the past several years. There are presently at least 300 geese and mallards, scores of Northern Shovelers and even a greater number of coots than one might typically expect to see.

But many of the birds will leave as soon as conditions stablelize elsewhere or as we move deeper into the winter.

Normally, during January and February (when parts or even most of the Reservoir ices over) there remain only about 100 geese and maybe 150 mallards who elect to "toughen it out" in one of the world's most prestigious parks as virtually all of the diving ducks and coots are forced to find open waters.

For all of its amenities and otherwise comforts, New York City can be challenging for waterbirds during a particularly harsh winter as virtually all of our lakes and ponds ice over.

We may not get the winds, cold and snow of Buffalo, but we are after all, still New York. -- PCA




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Tuesday, December 6, 2016

The Long Road Home


Rebecca and Susie during their long years in an alley
Susie as she is today -- a mystery slowly unfolding in her own time.
Seven years without a home.
Rebecca during the harsh days.
Beautiful Rebecca as she is today -- a picture of pure love.
Susie during the harsh days.
Two sisters forever bonded.
 
It's been a long road for sisters, Rebecca and Susie.

It was about seven years ago that I embarked on a project with neighbors to humanely deal with feral cats living in the alleys in back of our pre-war building on New York City's Upper East Side.

Two of my neighbors had been feeding the cats, but there had been no attempts to neuter or place any of the animals.

The results were kittens and half-grown feral cats, as well as a very feral mother and dad.

I warned that the situation would soon result in an out of control overpopulation of cats, neighbor complaints and Anima Control eventually being called to capture and kill the cats.

Young kittens were relatively easy to capture, socialize, vet and adopt out.

But, the feral mother whom I named, Mika and her feline lover, Robbie were another story.

I used a humane trap to eventually trap Mika and take her to my vet for spaying and shots.

As it was the middle of winter and I had never released a feral cat back to an outdoor environment, I attempted to "socialize" Mika in a large cage with the hope that with time, she might become used to human touch and adoptable.

Such hope was indeed naive.

Although I had previously socialized many stray, timid and under socialized cats during my years in cat and dog rescue, Mika represented a "challenge" the likes of which, I had never experienced.

The mere acts of feeding, watering and cleaning Mika's litter box and cage were met with lunging, hissing and swiping claws. So violent were Mika's attacks, I had to wear protective gloves that reached half-way up my arms. Any notions of trying to "pet" and otherwise "socialize" the wild cat from hell were quickly abandoned after only a few weeks.

Still, I was not one to easily give up.

I kept Mika's cage in my living room where she casually saw my other cats coming to me for affection and where she was constantly exposed to my presence, as well as soothing music and a comfortable environment.

None of it did any good.

It became all too clear with time that Mika wanted nothing to do with me, a human home or even any of my other animals. The dark gray tabby cat wanted only one thing -- and that was to return to her real "home" and family in the alley.

And so, I waited for the snow to melt and the frigid temperatures of winter to finally subside before faced with the only choice I could make, albeit reluctantly.

On a sunny morning in mid April, I managed to corner Mika in her cage and get her into a carrier. I met with one of my other cat-loving neighbors and together, we released Maria back to the alleys. As soon as opening the carrier, Mika bolted out, dashed off and never looked back. Though a part of me felt relieved that Mika was back where she wanted to be, another part felt a sense of dejection for having failed her. Still, the good part was that Mika would never again give birth to more kittens.

With the dilemma of Mika and her young kittens finally resolved, attention was then focused on her two female, half-gown, gray offspring (Rebecca and Susie) from an earlier litter who were then nearly old enough to start reproducing.
Within a week, both cats were humanely trapped and brought to my vet for spaying and shots.

But rather than trying to deal again with angry feral cats who wanted to take out my hands (or anything else their claws could reach), I elected to pay my vet extra money to board the cats long enough to give them time to heal from the spay and be healthy enough for release.

About a week later, I picked up the cats and together with my neighbor, Cheryl, released the two sisters back to the alleys -- and back to their feral mom and dad.

All went comparatively and surprisingly well for the next couple years.

Both Cheryl and another neighbor fed the cats every night (including sliced, deli turkey meant for humans) and all four cats had very well honed-in survival skills and thick coats to get them through the roughest winters or worst of summers. (I suspect that during hostile weather, they sought and found refuge in holes of buildings as the cats were almost never seen during the day time.) 

Unlike her two daughters, however, the always-wild Mika had a penchant for getting out of the alleys and sometimes wandering the streets at night. Apparently, on one of these ventures, Mika was assumed to be a "stray" and was humanely trapped by a local rescue group.

Though I didn't see them, signs were later posted in the neighborhood of a "found ,spayed cat" whose photo was that of Mika. Not having seen the signs myself, I had no way to call the number. But my neighbors who did see the signs felt it was "wonderful" that a rescue group saved her.

I could only chuckle and hope that the rescue group had better luck than I did with Mika. She was, by far the most feral and intractable cat I had ever dealt with.  

Fast forward a couple of more years.

Tragically my neighbor, Cheryl, fell victim to breast cancer a few years ago and died. And a short time later, the other neighbor feeding the cats moved.

Responsibility for feeding and looking after the cats then fell entirely on me.

I was surprised to note that over the years, the two spayed sisters had become quite friendly with humans and enjoyed being petted. A part of me regretted having released cats back to an alley, that, from all appearances seemed somewhat socialized and even "adoptable." 

But, already full in my own home of both, cats and two dogs, I did not view it as option at that time to take more cats in. (Besides, they were good for rodent control in the alleys.)

Nevertheless, I did take photos of Rebecca and Susie in the alley and posted them on the Internet seeking foster homes. 

Needless to say, there were no offers.

And so, matters continued on for another few years.

I watched as Rebecca, Susie and their still very feral dad, Robbie, plodded through snow drifts sometimes taller than they were. I watched them deal with heavy rain storms, blizzards, brutal cold and the searing heat of NYC summers. Through it all, they remained stoic, strong, fantastically devoted and bonded to each other and welcoming of me.

Then, last March, Rebecca suddenly and mysteriously vanished and was missing for almost two weeks!

I inquired of local stores and supers in the neighborhood, but none had seen her. I checked the cat lists of Animal Control everyday, as well as found cat sites. But nothing turned up.

I was racked with guilt as I had become attached to Rebecca over the years and then cursed myself for not having rescued and taken her in when I had the chance.

When all seemed lost, I then prayed to God and promised that if Rebecca somehow survived and turned up again, I would take her in.

Then, one morning as it was pouring rain, I gazed out my window and miraculously there she was!

But, the bad news was that Rebecca was in the adjoining alley which was separated by a tall iron fence and even worse, she looked extremely emaciated and weak. Moreover, there was a deep gash and indentation in her tail, as if she'd been caught in a door or trapped somewhere for two weeks. 

Not stopping to think about anything, I filled a dish with cat food and ran down to the alley. I prayed Rebecca was hungry and strong enough to climb the fence and come to me.

Fortunately, Rebecca responded and summoned just enough energy to slowly and painstakingly make her way to me.

Shocked at how weak and dehydrated she was, I immediately picked up Rebecca, held her close to me and ran upstairs to my apartment as fast as I could. She neither had the strength nor will to try and break away.

I brought Rebecca to my bathroom, where I quickly set up food, water, litter box and blanket.

But first, I had to dry her off as she was completely rain-soaked to the bone.
The dirt, caked mud and filth on the cat turned the fluffy white towel completely black within seconds. It was apparent that Rebecca must have been trapped in some very filthy basement for the two weeks as nothing in the alleys could have produced that much dirt and grime.

Because she was too weak to resist my attentions (and seemed to sense I was helping her), Rebecca completely melted in my arms and surprisingly enjoyed petting, stroking and even cleaning. Flipping the toilet seat down, over the next week, I picked Rebecca up constantly and petted her in my lap. She nuzzled into me like a human baby and purred like a kitten.

Finally clean and quickly recovered from her ordeal in about a week, Rebecca let me know she wanted out of the bathroom.

Though expecting some friction with my four other cats and senior Pomeranian dog, I was a little hesitant at first, but decided the time was right for Rebecca to branch out.

Because she is by nature, a very confident and positive cat (but not challenging or aggressive) Rebecca respected and adapted very quickly to my other animals and they to her. There was no friction or conflict at all.

Over the next few months, matters moved along swimmingly. Though I felt a little bad about separating Rebecca from her much devoted sister still in the alley, she did not appear to suffer any bouts of separation anxiety or show any desire to return to the alley.

Her sister, Susie on the other hand, did appear to be "lost" without her sister -- this despite her still having Robbie to hang out with. (While the two sisters were always very close, the same could not be said about their relationship with their very feral father who always appeared dominant and somewhat bullying to the two girls.) Susie could be heard many nights yowling loudly in the alley as if calling out for and trying to find her sister again. It was pitiful.

I thought about rescuing Susie, but then considered the impact that might have on her dad who would then be entirely alone. But, aside from that, I was experiencing other, more pressing problems.

This past August I suddenly lost my 20-year-old Pomeranian, Chance, to a very fast spreading and deadly Lymphoma. (I had previously lost my other dog, Tina, two years earlier at the age of 21).  

A horrible sense of grief and loss overtook me as my home was suddenly so empty without a dog. Walks to Central Park were especially tough without my long-time companion in his little doggie stroller.

For a while, I considered adopting another dog, but then something strange happened.

Rebecca began to act more and more "dog-like."

Rebecca was always there to greet me in the morning as soon as I got up. She followed me around the house and even greeted me every time I came home. Most of all, she demanded to be picked up, held and petted nearly all the time.

It was almost as if Chance's spirit had somehow meshed with Rebecca's. Suddenly, I didn't need a dog as I already had one (albeit in a cat's body).

Meanwhile (about two months ago), a couple of Yuppie neighbors began to complain to the landlord about the loud cat yowling in the alleys at night.
I received a call from the management of the building requesting (somewhat kindly) that I "do something" about the cats.

I explained that I could rescue the female cat, but had no way of capturing the very feral male who was "necessary for rodent control."  

That night, I took a carrier with me when feeding Susie and Robbie.

As Susie was used to me petting her and even picking her up on occasion, she was no trouble to pick up and place in the carrier. -- In fact, it was a breeze!

Unfortunately, that was where "easy" would quickly end with Susie.

Unlike her sister, Rebecca, who was hours away from death's door when rescued, Susie was strong and healthy.

Once brought into my home and first released into a large cage, Susie boldly resisted any and all attempt to touch, let alone pet her!

On the contrary, she suddenly acted more like her wild mother, Mika, than the friendly cat whom I had been feeding and petting for the past three years!  (Susie would even allow me to occasionally cut mats from her dense fur when in the alley.)  Now, I could not touch Susie without loud hisses and attempts to rake my hand with outstretched claws that meant business!

The cage experiment clearly failing, I released Susie from the cage after only a couple of days.

Was that a mistake?  Probably. But, Susie's loud yowls of anger and protest were enough to get me into further trouble with Yuppie neighbors.

The "good news" in all this was that Susie was ecstatic to see her sister, Rebecca again and wasted no time gushing up to her in happy reunion.

But, Rebecca had changed over the months and evolved into a "human oriented cat" rather than just a "cat cat."  Rebecca showed little interest in her sister and merely tolerated her -- though the two cats frequently eat together just like old times.

Susie has indeed made herself very comfortable here. She loves playing with toys, eating,  sleeping on cushy chairs or beds and constantly cozying up to her much beloved sister.

Susie just hates and wants no part of me -- just like her "crazy" mom once did.

I am not sure what the future holds for Susie or me for that matter.

I keep hoping that Susie's love and devotion for Rebecca will eventually result in her trusting of me again as it did when both cats were in the alley together. But so far that has not happened even when Susie sees Rebecca and my other cats follow me around and entwine themselves on my lap everyday.

Sometimes, Susie sits and stares particularly intently and smugly when Rebecca is on my lap. I can hear the wheels spinning in her head: 

"I can't believe my beloved sister sold herself out like that!  Does she not remember where she came from? That will never be me!  You can take me out of the alley, but you will NEVER take the alley out of me!"

How could two sisters who grew up together and experienced all the same things be so different?

It's not a question I can answer at this time. Suffice it to say, that the more you think you know (and can predict), the more you learn you know nothing at all and can predict even less.

But for the time being, the old dad still roams the alleys and shows up each night to eat, the wild geese still migrate through Central Park, the Christmas trees are currently lit on Park Avenue and two sisters have traveled the long, seven-year road to finally find home. -- PCA
                                                  



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